Drammen, Norway, 1966-76

Fjell

No of units/inhabitants

1516 units / 3700 inh.

 

Ownership 

Four cooperatives own the ground and buildings. Residents own their dwellings.

Organisation form

Owner-resident cooperatives (93 %), municipally allocated social housing (7 %).

Urban context

Suburban.

Overall spatial typology

32 blocks, 18 low-and-long (4 stories) and 14 high rise blocks (10-12 stories) amidst green open spaces, characterized by drastic topography.

Functions

Appartments, school, kindergartens, playgrounds, shared squares, district house (library, assembly room, office space for locals, health centre), Pizza shop. No shopping centre or grocery store (2009).

Citizen diversity

Three out of four have immigrant background. Largest numbers from Turkey and Pakistan, growing numbers from Eastern Europe and Africa. Significant number of elderly Norwegians.

Official main challenges 

Comparatively low levels of employment, income and education. Relatively high mobility. Bleak public image.

Current activities

Renewal project based on participatory processes with upgrading of multiple public spaces and play grounds.

Apartment size

80 m2 + (283/19%)

54-79 m2 (900/59%)

Under 52 m2 (333/22%)

Building Types 

3 round or star formed semi-high rise (12 floors) 

11 lamel shaped semi-high rise (10 floors) 

18 lamel shaped low rise

 

Farum Midtpunkt

Metropolitan Copenhagen, Denmark 1970-1975

No of units/inhabitants

1580 units / 3500 residents.

 

Ownership 

Housing Association. A few buildings to the south owned by the municipality, containing care center for elderly, a rehabilitation centre  and a cultural activity centre (in former school).

Organisation form

Non-profit rental housing including up to 25 % municipally allocated housing.

Urban context

suburb in metropolitan region.

Overall spatial typology

Terraced megastructure with 24 3-storey blocks and 3 4-storey blocks on top of car deck.

Functions

Apartments, kinder garden, bars, clubs, assembly rooms, municipal care center for elderly, senior co-housing, corner shop, parks and gardens,

outdoor squares, playgrounds, and other communal spaces.

Citizen diversity

High. Residents with many cultural and language backgrounds. A large variety of income groups, agegroups, small and large households etc.

Official main challenges 

Negative public image, crime/safety, vandalism, decay, segregation.

Current initiatives

Recent social and physical projects with a high degree of resident participation.

Apartment size

Type A and D/130 Sqm/ 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms

Type B and Type C/55 Sqm/ 1 bed-and-living-room, 1 bath

Type E and F/129 Sqm/ 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms

Type EV/ 70 Sqm/1 bedroom, 1 bathroom

Type G/98 Sqm/2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type Qth and Qtv/ 80,5 Sqm/ 2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type T/ 81 Sqm/2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type E3/ 99 Sqm/2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type E1R2/ 61 Sqm/1 bedroom, 1 bathroom

Type ‘Dobbeldekker 1.3’/99 Sqm/2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type E1R3 ‘Dobbeldekker 2,2’/ 73 Sqm/2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type E2 ‘Dobbeldekker 2,3/87 Sqm/ 1 bedroom, 1 bathroom

Type ‘Dobbeldekker’3,1/ 87 Sqm/1 bedroom, 1 bathroom

Type E1R4/85 Sqm/2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom

Type ‘dobbeldekker 3,3/ 87 Sqm/ 1 bedroom, 1 bathroom

 

Telli

Aarau, Switzerland, 1971-1991

No of units/inhabitants

1258 units / 2360 inhabitants.

Ownership 

Mixed ownership: institutional owners, private homeowners; municipal rental housing.

Organisation form

Rental housing (institutional, municipal, cooperative) and private-owned condominium.

Urban context

Outskirts of a small town.

Overall spatial typology

4 extended blocks megastructure with generous green outdoor spaces.

Functions

Apartments; sports and shopping centre, restaurant, community centre; school, kindergarden, bank, petting zoo, youngs people’s leisure club, small shops.
 

Citizen diversity

High. 28% of inhabitants with foreign nationality (city average: 20%), various income groups.
 

Official main challenges 

High amount of foreign language children in school; negative public image and complex ownership structure (complicates renovations of public spaces).

Apartment size

1.5–5.5 bedroom apartments )

Building types

4 residential high rise blocks (8-19 storeys)
1 high rise tower with shopping center and offices (27 storeys)

Surfaces

Total area surface: 150,000 sqm Overbuilt area: 13,300 sqm Open spaces: 136,700 sqm Gross floor area: 128,850 sqm

 
Bern, Switzerland,1958-1966

Tscharnergut

No of units/inhabitants

1208 units / 2563 inhabitants.

Ownership 

Mixed ownership: institutional, private, pension fund; cooperative housing; municipal housing.

Organisation form

Rental housing (cooperative, institutional), privately owned single-family houses and municipal/ municipally allocated housing.

 

Urban context

Urban neighborhood with various postwar high-rises.

Overall spatial typology

5 high rises, 8 blocks, 3 multifamily complexes, 2 rowhouse complexes.

Functions

Apartments; community centre; shopping infrastructure; gym; school, kindergarden, restaurant, library, petting zoo, daycare, children’s leisure club.
 

Citizen diversity

High; large share of persons aged 65 and over and of persons with migration background.
 

Official main challenges 

Negative public image; Renovation process of the built structure; conflict of securing low rents / social structure of residents and renovation (cost intensive) ; conflicting ideas of heritage (e.g. possibility of changing the mix of flats in order to attract more families).

Apartment size

20 x 1.5 bedroom apartments 33 x 2 bedroom apartments
31 x 2.5 bedroom apartments 830 x 3.5 bedroom apartments 72 x 4 bedroom apartments 162 x 4.5 bedroom apartments 60 x 5.5 bedroom apartments

Buildig Types

5 residential high rise blocks (20 storeys) 7 residential blocks (8 storeys)
3 residential blocks (4 storeys)
2 rows of single-family-houses (2 storeys)

Surfaces

Total area surface: 180,000 sqm Overbuilt area: 25,460 sqm Open spaces: 154,540 sqm Gross floor area: 121,139 sqm

 
Naples, Italy, 1985-1987

Lotto O

No of units/inhabitants

1084 units / 4000 inhabitants.

Ownership 

City of Napoli.

Organisation form

State-subsidized rental housing.

Urban context

Part of post-earthquake consolidated periphery.

Overall spatial typology

Apartment blocks.

Functions

Apartments; parking lots; school (kindergarden, elementary and primary); open spaces; church with small sports facility and playground; healthcare facility for drug addiction; few shops; storage rooms; abandoned/incomplete public buildings.
 

Citizen diversity

Italians and a low number of immigrants. Local low-income groups.

Official main challenges 

Poverty, unemployment, crime, squatting, social and spatial segregation.

Apartment size

Type A / 45 sqm / 1 bedroom, 1 bathroom
Type B / 65/70 sqm / 2 bedrooms, 1 bathroom Type C / 75/85 sqm / 2 bedrooms, 1,5 bathrooms Type D / 85/90 sqm / 3 bedrooms, 1,5 bathrooms Type E / 110/115 sqm / 4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms

Building Types

Building P1-P2: condominium; industrialized technological system with structural concrete walls
Building P3: condominium, industrialized technological system with concrete beams and pillars

Building L1-L2-L3-L4-L5: condominium, industrialized technological system with structural concrete walls

Surfaces

Total area surface: 145,000 sqm Overbuilt area: 37,000 sqm Open spaces: 108,000 sqm Gross floor area: 97,000 sqm

The PUSH project is supported by Humanities in the European Research Area (HERA) and conducted by the University of Copenhagen, NMBU, ETH Zürich, and University of Naples Federico II. Unless where otherwise noted, the content of this website is distributed under the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA). For any request, please write to info@pushousing.eu